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The Structures of International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

The Structures of International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission is established to promote investor confidence in the securities and capital markets by providing more structure and government oversight. The mission of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission is to protect investors and maintain integrity of the securities industry, overseeing major participants in the industry, including stock exchanges, broker-dealers, investment advisors, mutual funds, and public utility holding companies. The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission is concerned primarily with promoting disclosure of important information, enforcing securities laws, and protecting investors who interact with these various organizations and individuals.

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission comprises the following:

•Membership of the Financial Supervision Commission

•Supervision Division

•Enforcement Division

•Policy Division

•Authorizations Division

•Operations Division

•Companies Registry


Jack M. Fairchild jun 6 16, 04:22
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Join the Team of International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

Join the Team of International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission currently employs over 50 staff. This is a mixture of permanent staff and fixed term contract staff. Temporary staff and specialist technical staff are also contracted as and when our business needs determine. As an independent statutory body the staffs of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission are Federal Agents and salaries on the GS (General Schedule) scale.

What’s in it for you?

We like to think that our staffs are some of the best in the international regulatory environment. We provide a long term commitment to personal development. Career opportunities within the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission are diverse and your long term career prospects in the finance sector generally can benefit greatly from your experience with the institution.

What’s it like to work at the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission?

You may have already formed a perception of what it might be like to work for the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission. Perhaps from what you have read in the press, your experience of working for a regulated entity or being a consumer of financial services. The following should help you decide whether a career at the institution is for you.

Commission culture

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission culture is one of professional excellence fostering employee development and encourages them to meet their full potential in order to maximize successes. The atmosphere is exciting and creates an environment in which employees are engaged, challenged and motivated. We are proud of the part we play in sustaining the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission’s position as an international financial center.

Training and development

We are committed to ensuring that staffs achieve continuous professional development and we provide the opportunity to undertake a range of relevant professional qualifications. We place the power, to shape your future through personal and professional development, in your hands.

Equal Opportunities

It is the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission policy to promote equal opportunities in the workplace. The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission seeks to select the most suitable person for the post, subject to the provisions of the Control of Employment legislation. The selection process is undertaken without discrimination and regardless of age, gender, disability, marital status, ethnic background or religious beliefs.

Investors In People

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission has achieved recognition by the Investors in People standard. The standard has helped the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission improve performance and communication and realize objectives through the management and development of our people.

What type of people are we looking for?

Our people are at the very center of our organization and core to our strategy to meet our goals. The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission seeks individuals who can make a valuable contribution to its work. People with a real interest in our objectives who can communicate effectively, individuals with flair, creativity and the ability to drive and complete projects and people who are well informed and great team players.

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission’s success depends upon the performance of its people. We work in a professional environment where staff are engaged and contribute to the business, working closely with the industry, Government and international bodies.

Rewards & Benefits Package

Financial Benefits

•A competitive salary

•Contributory pension scheme

•Death in service benefit

•Car parking space (after a qualifying period)

Holidays

•Minimum of 25 days annual leave (rising to 30 days after a qualifying period)

•Flexible working scheme – up to 12 days can be accrued each year

Training & Development

•Sponsorship and support for relevant professional studies

•Technical and vocational training

Health & well-being

•Annual health/lifestyle checks

•Enhanced maternity and paternity provisions

•Subsidised social events

•Fresh fruit provided weekly

•Discounted gym membership


Jack M. Fairchild jun 8 16, 04:51
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International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission on Conflicts of Interest

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission includes a number of non-executive Commissioners who importantly bring a blend of different commercial experiences to the decisions which the institution takes.

As a result such Commissioners may have interests with which conflicts can arise in the course of carrying out their work with the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission.

To maintain public confidence in its regulation, the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission wishes to demonstrate that the actions of Commissioners are dealt with separately from other interests which they may hold.

The Code of Conduct regarding Conflicts of Interest is published on this website and in the interests of transparency; details of Commissioners’ current directorships have also been published.

The conflicts of interests of staff generally are dealt with in the terms and conditions of service and the staff handbook and the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission’ Code is mirrored as appropriate in the staff version.

You can like us at Facebook Page and Follow us at twitter @ifsrc


Jack M. Fairchild jun 3 16, 04:24
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Deposit and Withdrawal at International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission (IFSRC) and Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian (DWAC) service provides participants with the ability to make electronic book-entry deposits and withdrawals of eligible securities into and out of their IFSRC book-entry accounts using Albano Stock Transfer agent as the distribution point.

About

DWAC allows participants to instruct IFSRC regarding deposit and withdrawal transactions being made directly via an Albano Stock transfer agent. The Albano system eliminates the movement of physical securities certificates for transfers of securities registered in the name of IFSRC’s nominee, on the transfer agent’s books. IFSRC and Albano transfer agents reconcile the results of participants’ deposit and withdrawal activities electronically on a daily basis.

Who Can Use the Service

All IFSRC participants are eligible to use the service.

Benefits

This service leverages the book-entry capabilities established between IFSRC and Albano transfer agents, delivering efficiencies, risk mitigation and cost savings to participants.

How the Service Works

In order for securities to be eligible for deposit for withdrawal via the DWAC service, the issuer must use the services of a transfer agent that participates in IFSRC’s Albano Transfer program.

Participants submit their physical securities and/or transfer instructions for approval directly to their Albano transfer agent. When the transfer agent approves the transfer, the participant enters the transaction on IFSRC’s Participant Terminal System (PTS), the Part Direct Deposit/Withdrawal function on IFSRC’s Participant Browser System (PBS), or the CF2DWX file protocol. The transfer agent then approves the transaction via the CDWC function on PTS or the TA Direct Deposit/Withdrawal function on PBS.

For DWAC deposits, the requesting participant’s position in its IFSRC account is increased as is IFSRC’s Albano Transfer balance in the issue. For DWAC withdrawals, the requesting participant’s position in its IFSRC account is debited, as is IFSRC’s Albano balance in the issue.

For More Information

Please email: info@ifsrc.com


Jack M. Fairchild jun 10 16, 05:05
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Best-buy savings accounts often beat investing in the stock market, study finds

Couple meeting with their financial advisor.

Based on a major study conducted since 1995 on the performance of savings and investments, keeping your cash in a best-buy savings account can often provide better returns than investing in stocks.

So, which is really better?

The research which was done by financial journalist Paul Lewis (not related to Martin Lewis, founder of MoneySavingExpert.com), showed that most investment periods in the last 21 years, stashing money in best-buy cash savings accounts would have given a saver more than a FTSE 100 shares tracker (following the index of shares in the biggest 100 firms on the London Stock Exchange directory).

Traditionally, investments in shares has remained the best way to build your wealth; however, that does not seem to be the case now according to the research, which likewise emphasizes the stark reality of losing money through investing.

What did the research really confirm?

The study compared gains from a simple HSBC tracker fund (which 'tracks' the FTSE 100 index of shares) with cash put yearly into a best-buy one-year deposit account with a bank or building society – also referred to as a 'one-year bond'. It assumed that dividends were invested back while the cash was also invested back yearly together with earned interest. The study showed the following:

  • Savings accounts overtook the overall gains on the tracker in 57% of the 192 five-year investment periods commencing monthly since 1 January 1995. On the other hand, the tracker scored only 43% of the same durations.
  • Over longer time durations, the difference was even more pronounced. For instance, in more than 84 14-year periods from 1995, cash-savings handily overran investments in shares with an impressive 96% score.
  • When considering a various periods of investment since 1995, such as from one to 11 years, the study found investments in funds that follow the FTSE 100 would have ended up losing money up to 33% of the time. However, keeping your money in a savings account assured you a gain over the original amount, a virtually risk-free proposition.
  • Nevertheless, savings accounts did not win in each situation. The research showed that throughout the full 21-year period from 1995 to 2016, best-buy savings accounts would have delivered an average 5 % “annual compound return” (rate-of-return on your investment) against the 6% HSBC tracker fund would have produced.

But while shares led over the entire period, this finding is still remarkable. Although investors are ordinarily told an average 'risk premium' (which is the extra gain you expect to get by 'risking' an investment in a tracker instead of keeping a bank savings account) of 3% to 8%; however, this study seems to point to a slight gain near 1%.

In short, best-buy savings accounts are more advantageous than investing in the stock market since savings account will never be lost while investments in shares may disappear.

So, how was the research undertaken?

Paul Lewis, who presents Radio 4's Money Box program, acquired data from best-buy cash records since 1995 from Moneyfacts, a financial information publisher.

He states, "This new study of the data proves that people who choose to keep their cash safe in savings accounts have a higher rate of winning over those who prefer tracker funds in most of time periods.

"Likewise, it verifies that the risk of incurring losses on stock investments is quite real. Over any investment period of one up to five years from 1995 to 2015, about one out of four chances or more resulted in the investment’s failure. For longer periods of nine or ten years, the chance of failing was about one out of ten. Only a few financial consultants are aware of such odds and even fewer tell their clients about them.

"For so long, I have long assumed that the value of cash was played down by conventional study which tend to put out poor cash rates in comparison with overstated gains in stocks investments."

So, should we then do away with investing in shares?

It really depends on one’s risk capacity. Whereas this study sheds new light on the issue, whether you invest or save, it is an individual’s choice wholly dependent on one’s outlook on risk; hence, if you are comfortable with taking risks, you may find your fulfillment in shares.

Lewis's study discovered periods when shares gave a higher gain than cash, such as from 1 November 2008 to 1 September 2009; and during the entire 21-year-period, shares enjoyed a slight advantage.

In general, however, for investment periods of five years or more, cash savings gave a better return over shares: 38 against 24, respectively.

Moreover, Lewis says: "In every situation, cash may not be right for everyone. However, for a cautious investor over long periods of time of up to two decades, this study points to the advantage of well-managed active cash over a FTSE 100 tracker in most cases. The clincher for people who look for a sure winner is that a cash account will produce more money than what they put in."


Jack M. Fairchild aug 2 16, 12:09
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Resources at International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

Borrowing to Invest: Understanding Leverage

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission created this guide to help you understand how leverage is used in investing. It is intended as an overview of borrowing to invest. Before you invest with borrowed money, make sure you understand the risks of using a leverage strategy in your portfolio.

What is Leverage?

Leveraged investing is defined as borrowing money to finance an investment. You are familiar with the concept of leverage if you've ever:

•Borrowed money to make additional contributions
•Used a credit line for investing
•Bought securities on margin from an investment dealer
Both individuals and companies use leverage as an investment strategy; a company with a lot of debt is considered highly leveraged. Leverage can be an effective way to boost returns in your investment portfolio, but you should also understand the potential consequences of borrowing to invest.

Leverage magnifies your losses as well as your gains, and you must be able to withstand those losses if you are going to use borrowed money to invest. The leveraged investment should be suitable to your investment goals and objectives and consistent with the "know your client" information that you have provided to your dealer or adviser. It is both your responsibility and your adviser's to ensure that you understand the investment, and are comfortable with the risk level.
Can You Handle the Risk?

Is leverage right for you? Ask yourself these questions:

•Do you understand the risks of borrowing to invest?
•Can you afford to lose the collateral you pledged as security for the loan?
•Do your leveraged investments fit your risk tolerance profile?
•Are you able to comfortably pay back your loan?
•What are the interest and repayment terms of your loan?
•Are you monitoring interest rates and inflation? Do you understand their effects on your return?
•How much money will you lose in your worst-case scenario? Can you afford it?
•Are you aware of the tax consequences that apply to your investment?

Lesson #1: The Secured Investment Loan

John Doe uses $50,000.00 from a bank line of credit to buy stocks. He secures the credit line using his home as collateral. This type of investment is a form of leverage, because John is using borrowed funds to finance his investment in stocks. John hopes that the value of his investment will increase to the point where he earns more from the investment than he is paying toward the interest on the line of credit.

If John's investment decreases in value, he still has to make his monthly line of credit payment at the amount he originally negotiated. If John cannot make his monthly payment, he may have to sell the shares even if they have decreased in value. If the value of the shares does not cover the balance owing, he may be forced to sell his home.

Any asset used as collateral, including your house, can be taken by your creditor to satisfy the debt.

Lesson #2: The Mutual Fund Loan

Larry has $75,000 saved for his retirement, which is five years away. Concerned that his savings will not support his lifestyle, Larry consults with a mutual fund salesperson. He tells Larry that a lender will match the amount of Larry's investment with a $75,000 loan, which he can use to invest in more mutual funds.

According to the salesperson, Larry will easily be able to make the monthly interest payments on the loan by selling a small portion of the mutual funds each month. In this example we assume that fund companies allow 10% of holdings to be sold each year without triggering deferred sales charges.

This strategy will only work if the value of the new mutual funds steadily increases. If the funds decrease, Larry will still have to make the interest payments on the borrowed money. Larry should also realize that the mutual fund salesperson receives a commission check for the initial sale of the funds, and may receive ongoing commission (trailer fees). Larry might also consider whether he wants to go into debt for an investment that can fluctuate in value, considering his approaching retirement.

Investors should always be in a position to be able to pay for investment loans out of cash flow. Closely consider the fees associated with this type of investment. Many investors use leverage in this way to contribute more money and generate a higher tax refund. A common strategy is to use the tax refund to pay off or pay down the loan, decreasing the amount of interest payable.

Advanced Leverage Techniques

Buying on Margin

When you buy securities on margin, you pay for a portion of the value of the securities purchased, and borrow the rest of the money from a registered investment dealer. Under federal securities laws, your investment dealer can only loan you a set of percentage of the value of your investment, known as the maximum loan value. The maximum loan value depends with the type of securities you are buying.

What Are the Risks of Borrowing on Margin?

If the value of your loan exceeds the allowed loan value, the dealer makes a margin call, requesting that you deposit more money into your account to protect the loan. If you cannot meet the margin call, the dealer can sell some or all of your investment, even at a loss, to make up the shortfall.

In times of market decline, margin borrowing can be a quick way to lose money. While you can buy more securities using margin than you could without a loan, you could lose more than what you paid for the investment. You should be prepared to deposit more money on short notice, in order to meet margin requirements in a fluctuating market.

Short Selling

Short selling is a leveraging strategy that lets you take advantage of market declines. If you think the price of a security is going to drop, you can borrow shares of that security from your investment dealer and sell them at the current high price. If the share price falls, you can purchase the shares at the lower price on the open market and "return" the borrowed shares to your dealer. You profit by selling shares at the higher price, and buying at the lower price.

What are the Risks of Short Selling?

You are speculating that the security value will fall, so you can lose money if the value rises instead. Margin requirements for short selling are much higher than typical margin borrowing, because of the risk of using borrowed shares.

When borrowing on margin, understand what your obligations are, and ensure that you can meet those obligations. If you cannot pay the interest or meet a margin call on your account, the investment dealer has the right to sell your securities, even at a loss. It is not a good idea to use short selling unless your cash flow can easily cover potential losses.

How to Buy and Sell Stocks

Okay, so you've decided you want to try investing in the stock market, but how do you actually go about buying and selling stocks?

Well, there are two main ways you can go about trading stocks. The first to work with a financial adviser or salesperson that is registered with the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission. Based on his training, knowledge of the various available stocks, and the quality of research his firm and other firms may do on companies, the salesperson should be able to recommend stocks that meet your objectives. He must work for a company that is also registered as an investment dealer and the firm must also be registered.

The second method is to go directly to a company registered as an investment dealer instead of going to a registered salesperson for advice first. Many people have self-directed accounts at discount brokerages and manage their own portfolios. But you need to be pretty savvy to be able to sift through all the information that's available out there on various investments and then decide where to invest your money.

Whether you deal with a salesperson at a dealer, or buy and sell online or over the phone, there are some key decisions you have to make with respect to making your trade orders.

The price of stocks and bonds can change from second to second throughout the day, depending on how much investors are willing to pay for them. Both the amounts you pay for them and make back when you sell later on can depend on how quickly your order is processed, or what instructions you give your dealer to handle your order.

Market Orders and Limit Orders

Placing a "market" order gives your dealer permission to buy or sell stocks for you at whatever the price for the stock is at the time.

On the other hand, placing a "limit" order gives you more control over the price your salesperson or dealer buys or sells at, but your order may not be filled right away.

A limit order allows you to set a price limit for the stock your salesperson is trying to buy or sell for you. You will not end up paying more than the limit. If you're selling some of your stock, the order will go through at or above the price you set, so you'll never end up selling your stock for less than you expected. If the price of the stock is not within your ‘limit order,' you may not end up buying or selling the stock at all.

Types of Limit Orders

You can increase your chances of the order going through by placing a certain type of limit order. For example, a "day" order can be placed, but is only good for the day the order is entered. When an "open" order is placed, it is good for a maximum of 30 days, or a GTC (good till cancelled) order can be placed, and is good until it is cancelled by you.

Orders will only be processed if you either have money in your brokerage account, or have arranged for a margin account which allows you to borrow money from the dealer for part of your investments.

If you buy a stock, the value of your investment will increase or decrease depending on a variety of factors that can affect the price of the stock, including the wellbeing of the company, the economy, and the amount of stock available to be traded.

Investing and the Internet - Be Alert to Signs of Fraud

The internet can be an invaluable tool for investors and offers a wealth of information about financial markets and personal investing. News services, government agencies, stock exchanges, mutual fund companies, securities and financial advisers have established literally hundreds of websites that provide up-to-date information on investing and products. With just a few keystrokes, an investor with a computer and modem can have access to more educational materials and current market data than ever before.

Investors who venture into the online world, however, should keep in mind that the power of the Internet is also being exploited by investment con artists and fast-buck operators who want nothing more than to separate you from your hard earned money.
The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission has mounted important new programs to stop cyber-fraud, but there are still many places on the Internet for swindlers to set up shop. This does not mean that cyberspace should be avoided, but it does mean that investors should be alert to improper practices such as:

Unregistered Trading

The law requires that people in the business of trading or advising in securities be registered or licensed in the state or territory in which they do business. Increasingly, dealers from abroad are advertising their services over the Internet and the World Wide Web and are accepting clients and conducting business in jurisdictions where they are not registered.

Online Touts and Promotions

Online bulletin boards, news groups and discussion groups dedicated to investment topics can be effective forums for investors to share ideas about personal finance. Unfortunately, some con artists have used these forums to tout specific securities for their own enrichment. Frequently using aliases, these con artists post messages calculated to spark interest in a security, usually one that is traded on a venture capital or over-the-counter market.

The messages sometimes take the form of testimonials or fake conversations. They often include unsupported share price predictions or 'hot tips' about important news that has not been publicly disclosed. What the messages do not disclose is that the person is hyping the security only for personal gain.

Misrepresentations

Information that appears on a computer is not necessarily true. Regulators are receiving an increasing number of complaints about misrepresentations in investment information distributed through the internet or by email.

Often the misinformation has been posted anonymously or through an alias, making it difficult to determine its origin. In other cases, the mis-statements are made by companies or financial advisers who do not take the same care in preparing electronic communications as they would in preparing an official filing for regulators.

Manipulation

Through anonymous online touts and misrepresentations, cyber-schemers have used the internet to help them artificially run-up the price of thinly traded securities.

•Unwary investors read about hot tips, huge potential profits and limited risk, but they aren't told that the vast majority of shares are held by a small group of people who are behind the hype and promotion.
•As investors rush to the market to 'get in on the ground floor,' the inside group cashes in, selling its cheap shares into the rising market.
•When the hype-fueled share price falters, the promoters may blame unnamed short sellers and may inflict even more damage on victims by urging them to 'average down' by buying additional shares as the price drops.
•The security often disappears from sight soon after, and investigators are left to post plaintive messages: "Whatever happened to Company X?" These manipulative schemes have been played out for decades, but the internet makes it easier for fraudsters to reach a wide audience of unsuspecting investors.

Illegal Distributions

The power of the internet has tempted many new ventures to try to sell securities to the public illegally. The general rule is that securities can be distributed to the public only after the regulators have vetted the company's. Even then, the securities must be distributed through a registered dealer.

New schemes are being uncovered regularly in which companies are advertising and selling securities to the public via the Internet without having filed a prospectus and without fulfilling the legal requirement to provide investors with detailed information about the company and its securities.

Protecting Yourself Against Online Fraud

Some of the abusive investment schemes in cyberspace are indistinguishable from those that have been used elsewhere for decades. The online world, however, represents an enormous advance in the ability of con artists to victimize the unwary.

Some simple precautions can keep you from becoming a victim.

Don't believe everything you read.

•Evaluate the information you get online in the same way that you would a whispered hot tip from a stranger.
•Exercise healthy skepticism and remember how easy it is for people to disguise their identities online.
•Keep in mind that investment schemers will often talk up projects in remote corners of the globe that can't be easily checked out, or use endless technical jargon that can only be understood by experts Don't assume you know whom you are talking to.
•Bulletin boards and discussion group participants may not be who they say they are.
•Those who recommend specific securities may have not investment qualifications and may well have ulterior motives.

Don't assume that your online service provider polices its investment bulletin boards.

•Most don't.
•The volume of postings often swamps the ones that try.
•Often there is nothing to stop a con-artist from posting one or 100 pitches for a swindle Don't buy thinly traded, little known securities on the basis of online information.
•These are the securities most susceptible to manipulation.
•Unlike blue-chip stocks, the price of thinly traded, low priced shares can be moved significantly through relatively small strategic trades, this is why online hype usually concerns little known junior companies.
•Always take the time to do your own research based on reputable information sources Don't get suckered by claims made about 'inside information'.
•Investment bulletin boards and discussion groups are riddled with supposed hot tips that are sure to send some stock soaring in value
•Ask yourself, "If this is such great news, why are they telling me?"
•These hot tips are seldom, if ever, true.
•Even if they are true, trading on inside information is illegal.

Be on the lookout for conflicts of interest.

•Some of the people who analyze and recommend securities online are being paid by the company whose shares they are recommending. Some disclose this fact, while others make no mention of their conflicts of interest.
•Make sure you know why someone is enthusiastic about an investment opportunity Make sure that the security has been qualified for sale and is being sold by a person properly registered with your securities regulator.
•Securities regulations designed to protect investors from fraud and abuse do apply in cyberspace.
•The failure of companies, dealers or advisers to comply with regulations is often a red flag highlighting a potential investment scam.
•Your securities regulator can tell you whether an individual or company is registered to trade or advice in your area and whether the company selling the securities has filed a prospectus.

Ten Tips to Keeping Track of Your Investments

With our busy lives, it's often difficult to keep track of our investments. You may find that you only review them once a year. However, it's important that you keep on top of your finances and review on a regular basis. Here are some tips to help you.

1.      Read and keep all your financial documents.

This includes your account statements and prospectuses. These contain important information about your investments, any associated risks and your returns. Many investors are now offered simplified prospectuses that are easier to read and understand.

2.     Check your trade confirmations against your account statements, and report any discrepancies.

Look for any unapproved transactions or fees. It's important that you catch and resolve any errors immediately. This is much better than having to resolve things months down the road.

3.     If you don't receive regular account statements, follow up immediately.

This is often the first sign that you are the victim of identity theft. Con artists who steal your mail get lots of information about you, and are then able to apply for credit in your name. If you suddenly stop receiving your regular statements, report it immediately.

4.     When you speak with your adviser, take notes.

You should keep records of all your conversations, including your instructions and your adviser's advice.

5.     Ask questions about your investments.

If you don't understand something, speak up. Verify the information with a credible source.

6.     Even if you don't trade online, consider getting Internet access to your account.

Internet access allows you to review your account whenever you want. It's much easier to monitor your account if you can check it online at anytime. Periodically check the balance of your portfolio and bank account. This allows you to track your returns and enables you to catch problems early on.

7.      Meet with your adviser and visit the firm.

While many transactions can be made over the phone, it's important to meet with your adviser at least once. This helps you develop a relationship and understand their investment philosophy. Check out the firm and ensure you feel comfortable having them handle your account.

8.     Conduct independent research on your investments.

Read financial statements, and learn about the company's business risks before you invest.

9.     Periodically review your portfolio.

Make sure it matches your current investment objectives. Most investors find that their objectives change over time. Ensure that your adviser understands your current financial situation and has developed an appropriate plan.

10. Check registration by calling your securities regulator

Anyone selling securities or providing advice on securities has to be registered with a regulator. Find out if they are registered, what they are registered to sell, and if there are terms and conditions attached with their registration.

Are Your Money Styles a Match?

For couples planning their wedding, financial considerations don't end once the caterer's been paid. In fact, deciding on a wedding budget is just the first of many important financial decisions you will make together. To build a strong financial future, you must first understand your own individual approach to money management and then compromise to determine your approach as a couple.

Following are the money styles

The Savvy Saver

The only thing you can recall more quickly than your phone number is your bank balance. You know your budget and you stick to it. You understand that borrowing is an important and useful tool if it is managed carefully. You have goals for the future and a plan to get there. Saving is a top priority for you. You beef up your savings before you splurge on a cute pair of shoes or a cool gadget for your car. You've got top-notch financial habits that will put you in excellent shape for the future. Just remember that it's OK to splurge now and then! Being financially prudent to ensure a prosperous tomorrow doesn't have to come at the expense of those little luxuries that keep you happy today.

Sometimes Savvy, Sometimes Super Shopper

You approach financial issues like a restaurant menu. A little voice tells you that you should have the 'side salad' instead of the 'baked potato with sour cream.' Sometimes you listen, sometimes you don't. You often know what you should be doing with your finances, and at times you are quite disciplined about budgeting and saving, but you can also let it slide when the call of the mall becomes too enticing. You have some idea of your expenses, and know how much money you should be setting aside for any big, upcoming expenses, such as a wedding or a first house. You should write out a manageable budget and find a way to stick to it. The trick for you will be identifying the things that have knocked you off course in the past and develop a proactive plan, like setting aside a certain amount of fun money each week to save towards the splurge items.

"The next round's on me!"

Tax-efficient investing, portfolio diversification, asset allocation - all incredibly boring topics to you; they just get in the way of more important subjects that occupy your day. Your budgeting plan doesn't go beyond the next one or two paychecks. You've felt the pinch of debt, most likely to do with your credit cards. You need to take a careful look at your finances and develop a long-term budget. Reviewing your plan with a financial adviser makes good sense. Having never stuck to a budget in the past, you will need to work hard at developing some discipline. It would be a wise move to set up automatic withdrawals (weekly or monthly) for your savings to make it easier to stick with your plan.

What's Next?

Not surprising, most couples have slightly different takes on life, and money is no different. You don't have to have the same money style as your spouse. But, it's important for you to recognize the differences and find ways to compromise.

Seeking the help of a financial adviser can be useful for couples with similar or very different money styles. Money is an emotional issue and an adviser can offer an impartial viewpoint that is based on financial expertise - not family politics. If you've already found an adviser and have taken steps to discuss your future finances, good for you! Best wishes for a long and happy future together!

Penny Stocks

Penny stocks are low-priced stocks that typically start out at less than one dollar per share. They are sold on the premise of significant potential growth.

Very often, companies issuing penny stocks are new to the market. They may not have been in business long enough to establish a proven track record or credible financial history. Another characteristic may be an inexperienced management team. These factors undermine market reception and the ease with which penny stocks can be traded.

Anyone investing in penny stocks should be aware that - when they may want to sell his or her stock - a market may not exist. Penny stocks are 'priced low' for a reason.

Despite their bargain basement price, penny stocks are high risk. Unless you have the financial resources to withstand the loss of your initial investment and target returns, penny stocks are not for you.

Get the Facts

Why is it so important to get the facts?

Penny stocks are extremely vulnerable to manipulation. Promoters intent on misleading or defrauding investors are counting on you not to do your homework.

A common scam is the "pump and dump." In this situation, a promoter accumulates an inventory of penny stocks. Using high-pressure sales techniques, the stock is 'pitched' to clients. Clients (or investors) are found by any means in the interest of making a market. In the course of events, the price of the penny stock will rise (possibly to several dollars per share). As long as the promoter is able to locate new investors or encourage current clients to increase his or her holdings at a higher price, the scam continues. All the while, the promoter profits. When the scam has run its course, the stock becomes illiquid and the price falls. Hapless investors are left holding the now-worthless stock.

Where to Go for Information

Unscrupulous promoters are inventive and persistent. Using any means possible, they may spread false information. It pays to double-check their claims through other sources.

Corporate information comes in many forms including:

•Annual and quarterly reports
•Financial statements
•Prospectuses

These can be obtained from the public library system, your dealer or adviser, and stock exchanges.

Stock exchanges have minimum listing requirements that a company must meet before its securities can be traded on that exchange. Among other things, these requirements relate to a company's finances, management, and share ownership. If a company is not able to meet these minimum requirements, they may trade on the over-the-counter market. The over-the-counter markets consist of a network of dealers who trade among each other either on behalf of individual investors or themselves.

The Changing Markets

Traditionally, penny stocks trade on junior exchanges or over-the-counter markets. Investors benefit from a well regulated, fair and accessible market with enhanced protection through uniform regulatory standards, consistent enforcement, and improved market information.

How Will I Recognize a Penny Stock Scam?

There are a few tell-tale signs:

Unsolicited telephone calls. Be skeptical of an unknown salesperson calling to offer you "a fantastic investment opportunity.
Promises of a great rate of return. No dealer or adviser can guarantee an exceptional rate of return, and the law prohibits promises of such future returns.
High-pressure sales tactics. Do not be pressured into making hasty investment decisions.
Claims of little or no risk. If the projected rate of return is high, the associated risk is likely to be high as well.
Offers to discount commissions. Commissions that are charged for sales of penny stocks are often at rates higher than normal.
Claims of "inside" information. It is illegal to trade on the basis of confidential or "inside" information. The penalties of insider trading can be severe.
Reluctance to provide shareholder information. A salesperson should not hesitate to provide you with the information, which may include a prospectus that is necessary for you to make an informed decision.

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission has pursued and shut down long-standing securities firms for conducting "pump and dump" scams. Whether it's a cold call or a well-known firm in the community, gets an independent opinion, or do your own research. The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission is at the forefront of investor protection but you can make a difference by understanding how the market works.


Jack M. Fairchild jun 2 16, 04:40
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How Do I Invest?

You're ready to get started -- what now?

Once you've figured out why you should invest, the next step is learning how. We'll break that question into two parts. First, we'll talk about how you can structure your financial life to make it possible to invest. Then, we'll delve into the mechanics of investing, such as opening a brokerage or mutual fund account.

What is investing?

Any time you invest, you're devoting your own time, resources, or effort to achieve a greater goal. You can invest your weekends in a good cause, invest your intelligence in your job, or invest your time in a relationship. Just as you undertake each of these expecting good results, you invest your money in a stock, bond, or mutual fund because you think its value will appreciate over time.

Investing money involves putting that money into some form of "security" -- a fancy word for anything that is "secured" by other assets. Stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and certificates of deposit are all types of securities.

As with anything else, there are many different approaches to investing -- some of which you've probably seen on late-night TV. A well-dressed, wildly positive (though somewhat whiny) young man sits in front of lazily waving palm fronds, shaking his head about how incredibly easy it is to amass vast wealth -- in no time at all! Well, hey! That sounds fine! But if it were so easy, wouldn't everyone who saw the same pitch be rich? And how come you always have to send in money to learn those wealth-building secrets?

We suggest you take the $25 you'd spend on the hardcover EZ Secrets to Untold Billions book and the $500 you would shell out for the EZ Seminar, and invest it yourself -- after you've learned the basics here.

First, douse your debt

After learning why investing is a smart thing to do, you're probably itching to take the next step. You want to drop everything and start investing right now. But hold on! Would you start running a marathon without first stretching? Would you pour syrup on the plate before the pancakes are done? Having dazzled you with the power of compounded returns, we want to make sure that same principle's not working against you. Before you start investing, you've got to get rid of your high-interest debt.

The very same principle of compounding that helps your investments grow can quickly transform a dollar of debt into a few hundred dollars. Does it make sense to try to save money even as your debts are multiplying like bunnies? No way. Although some kinds of debt may be low-interest or tax-advantageous (such as your mortgage), you'll want to free yourself from the high-interest stuff before you begin to invest.

Every dollar you can put toward investing will work for you. And every dollar of yours kept out of the pockets of financial professionals or full-service brokers is also creating value for you.

Pay yourself first

To become a successful investor, make investing a part of your daily life. That's not as great a stretch as it may sound. After all, you make decisions that affect your finances every day, whether you're ordering a $7 glass of wine with dinner or getting a home equity loan to pay down credit card debt.

We're not suggesting that you obsess over every penny you throw into a wishing well. (Please don't embarrass your mother by diving in after it.) If you pay yourself first, you won't have to.

You already pay the companies behind your credit card, gas, water, electric, cable, and phone bills every month, right? Why not add yourself to the list? Heck, put yourself right at the top. Set aside a chunk of money to save or invest when you first get your paycheck, and you can happily forget about it for the rest of the month.

The Motley Fool recommends that you save as much as possible; 10% of your annual income (total, not take-home) is a good goal. Depending on your obligations, you may be able to save more or less. The more you save, the more wealth you create -- but anything is better than nothing. Even a few dollars saved now will be worth more than lots of dollars saved later.

With online banking and brokerage services, it's easier than ever to set up automatic monthly transfers between your checking account and a savings account or investing vehicle of your choice. You'll be surprised how easy it is to live on a little less money each month -- in fact, you probably won't even notice the difference.

Don't hesitate to be flexible about your savings. If you find yourself truly pinched for pennies once all the bills are paid, perhaps you're paying yourself too much. Perhaps you're not yet in a position to start paying yourself at all. That's perfectly OK -- but as soon as you can feasibly start saving, jump right in! The earlier you start, the better.

Active and passive strategies

The two main methods of investing in stocks are called active and passive management, and the difference between them has nothing to do with how much time you spend on the couch (or the exercise bike). Active investors (or their brokers or fund managers) pick their own stocks, bonds, and other investments. Passive investors let their holdings follow an index created by some third party.

When most people talk about stock investing, they mean active investing. It may sound like the superior strategy, but active investing isn't always all it's cracked up to be. Over the long haul, most actively managed stock mutual funds have underperformed the S&P 500 Index, the most popular and prominent benchmark for index funds.

In that light, you can understand why some people want an alternative to "active" management. Many people who just want a return roughly equal to that of a major stock index prefer passive investing. Beyond the S&P 500, you can find passive investments in many indexes, including the Russell 2000 for small-cap stocks, the Wilshire 5000 for the broad market as a whole, and various international indexes as well.

Investing versus speculating

Right about now, you may be thinking about that brother-in-law who "made a killing" in options. Or maybe you're reminiscing about the Nevada vacation when your one lucky quarter magically drew out 700 more with the pull of a slot-machine lever. Why put your money in slow-and-steady investment vehicles that merely promise double-digit returns, when you could have near-instant riches? With compounding, you have to wait patiently for years for your riches to accumulate. What if you want it all now?

Granted, there's nothing exhilarating about predictability. Matching the performance of the S&P 500 won't make you the life of the party. But neither will the far more common tales about how you lost your savings on some speculative gamble -- nor a recounting of your subsequent adventures in bankruptcy court.

You don't need a card dealer, dour strangers, or Wayne Newton background muzak to gamble. Plenty of stock market gamblers do an admirable job of losing their money on seemingly legitimate pursuits. At The Motley Fool, we believe investors "gamble" every time they commit money to something they don't understand.

Suppose you overhear your best friend's dentist's nanny talking about a company called Huge Fruit at a cocktail party. "This thing is gonna go through the roof in the next few months," she says in a stage whisper. If you call your broker the first thing the next morning to place an order for 100 shares, you've just gambled.

Do you know what Huge Fruit does? Are you familiar with its competition (Heavy Melon)? What were its earnings last quarter? There are a lot of questions you should ask about a "hot" company before you throw your hard-earned cash at it. A little knowledge could help keep you from losing a lot of money.

Remember, every dollar that you speculate with and lose is a dollar that's not working to create long-term wealth for you. Speculation promises to give you everything you want right now, but rarely delivers. In contrast, patience all but guarantees those goals down the road.

Planning and setting goals

Investing is like a long car trip: A lot of planning goes into it. Before you start, you've got to ask yourself:

  • Where are you going? (What are your financial goals?)
  • How long is the trip? (What is your investing "time horizon"?)
  • What should you pack? (What type of investments will you make?)
  • How much gas will you need? (How much money will you need to reach your goals? How much can you devote to a regular investing plan?)
  • Will you need to stop along the way? (Do you have short-term financial needs?)
  • How long do you plan on staying? (Will you need to live off the investment in later years?)

Running out of gas, stopping frequently to visit restrooms, and driving without sleep (this is the last of the travel analogy, we promise) can ruin your trip. So can saving too little money, investing erratically, or doing nothing at all.

Don't let yourself get away with fuzzy answers, either. Investing demands hard numbers -- get used to them. You'll need to pin down exactly how much it'll cost to send a child to college, or how much you'll need to live on in retirement. It can be liberating to see exactly what you need to reach your destination, and that precision helps you stay accountable to yourself along the way.

Don't worry -- you don't have to do all the math yourself.  Online interactive calculators can help you figure your future money needs. The more specific you can be, the more likely you are to set and achieve reasonable goals.

How stock trading works

You've whipped your finances into shape. You've set concrete financial goals. Now you're ready to learn how to start making your investments. If you use a mutual fund, the process is pretty easy: Contact the fund company and ask to open an account. But with stocks, things get a little trickier.

Stocks trade on exchanges. In the U.S., the major exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (AMEX), and the Nasdaq Stock Market. While there are differences in the way the various exchanges handle trades, buying and selling shares on any of them involves a similar process.

Exchanges bring together buyers and sellers. The price that buyers are willing to pay for shares is called the "bid," while the price sellers are willing to accept to sell their shares is the "ask" price. The difference between these two prices is called the "spread." Usually, the spread goes into the pockets of the exchange professionals who handle trades.

The amount of spread will vary, depending on the volume of shares traded. For heavily traded stocks, competition will make spreads quite small. Thinly traded stocks may carry a large spread, in order to compensate exchange professionals for the risk they take.

Investors can set their own bid or ask prices, too, by placing orders to sell or buy only at a specific price. (These are called "limit" orders.) Exchange professionals keep a close eye on these "open" orders, executing them when conditions are met, and using them to gauge demand for the stock.

Brokerage accounts are the most common way to buy stocks. You can either use one of the many way-too-expensive full-service (or full-price) brokers, or execute your trades through a discount broker. Learn more about how to pick one in our Broker Center, where you can compare brokers and open an account.

The perils of margin

When you use a brokerage account, you can have a cash account or a margin account. The former lets you trade only with money you actually have. The latter -- and right about now, you should be hearing alarm bells and warning sirens -- lets you purchase stocks with borrowed money. Margin accounts can increase your returns -- but they'll also increase your risk.

Brokers, who have a vested interest in enticing customers to use margin, like to say that such accounts increase your "buying power." But in reality, buying on margin only enhances your "borrowing power." You'll have to pay all that margin money back at some point -- forget that at your peril.

Brokers make a good part of their money by collecting interest on margin loans. And since margin gives investors more (borrowed) money with which to buy stocks, it generates greater commission fees for those same brokers. The broker has total control over the collateral for the loan, including the ability to step in and force you to sell stock if it thinks you're in danger of defaulting on its loan. For brokers, margin is a cash cow; for investors, it's a double-edged sword.

Dividend reinvestment plans (DRPs) and direct investment plans (DIPs)

Not yet ready to open a brokerage account? These plans offer another, steadier way to buy stock. Lovingly known by many investors as Drips, they allow shareholders to purchase stock directly from a company, with only minimal costs or commissions. Not every company offers such plans, but they're great for people who can only invest small amounts of money at regular intervals.

Summing up

All right, Fool -- you've got a rough idea of what you want to do with your finances, how much money you'll need, and how much time you have to reach that goal. And you now know how to start investing your money in the market. For your next step, it's time to start thinking about exactly what you should invest in, and the kind of returns you can reasonably expect.


Jack M. Fairchild aug 16 16, 05:27
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F.A.Q. at International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

Types of Acquisitions

In general, acquisitions can be horizontal, vertical, or conglomerate. A horizontal acquisition takes place between two firms in the same line of business. For example, one tool and die company might purchase another. In contrast, a vertical merger entails expanding forward or backward in the chain of distribution, toward the source of raw materials or toward the ultimate consumer. For example, an auto parts manufacturer might purchase a retail auto parts store. A conglomerate is formed through the combination of unrelated businesses.

Another type of combination of two companies is a consolidation. In a consolidation, an entirely new firm is created, and the two previous entities cease to exist. Consolidated financial statements are prepared under the assumption that two or more corporate entities are in actuality only one . The consolidated statements are prepared by combining the account balances of the individual firms after certain adjusting and eliminating entries are made.

Another way to acquire a firm is to buy the voting stock. This can be done by agreement of management or by tender offer. In a tender offer, the acquiring firm makes the offer to buy stock directly to the shareholders, thereby bypassing management. In contrast to a merger, a stock acquisition requires no stockholder voting. Shareholders wishing to keep their stock can simply do so, however by doing so the shareholder maybe left with holding stocks within a company that no longer exists.

A bidding firm can also buy another simply by purchasing all its assets. This involves a costly legal transfer of title and must be approved by the shareholders of the selling firm. A takeover is the transfer of control from one group to another. Normally, the acquiring firm (the bidder) makes an offer for the target firm. In a proxy contest, a group of dissident shareholders will seek to obtain enough votes to gain control of the board of directors.

Taxable Versus Tax-Free Transactions

Mergers and acquisitions can be either tax-free or taxable events. The tax status of a transaction may affect its value from both the buyer's and the seller's viewpoints. In a taxable acquisition, the assets of the selling firm are revalued or "written up. "Therefore, the depreciation deduction will rise (assets are not revalued in a tax-free acquisition). But the selling shareholders will have to pay capital gains taxes and thus will want more for their shares to compensate. This is known as the capital gains effect. The capital gains and write-up effects tend to cancel each other out.

Certain exchanges of stock are considered tax-free reorganizations, which permit the owners of one company to exchange their shares for the stock of the acquirer without paying taxes. There are three basic types of tax-free reorganizations. In order for a transaction to qualify as a type A tax-free reorganization, it must be structured in certain ways. in contrast to a type B reorganization, the type A transaction allows the buyer to use either voting or non-voting stock. It also permits the buyer to use more cash in the total consideration since the law does not stipulate a maximum amount of cash that can be used. At least 50 percent of the consideration, however, must be stock in the acquiring corporation. in addition, in a type A reorganization, the acquiring corporation may choose not to purchase all the target's assets.

In instances where at least 50 percent of the bidder's stock is used as the consideration but other considerations such as cash, debt, or non-equity securities are also used the transaction may be partially taxable. Capital gains taxes must be paid on those shares that were exchanged for no equity consideration. A type B reorganization requires that the acquiring corporation use mainly its own voting common stock as the consideration for purchase of the target corporation's common stock. Cash must comprise no more than 20 percent of the total consideration, and at least 80 percent of the target's stock must be paid for by voting stock by the bidder.

Target stockholders who receive the stock of the acquiring corporation in exchange for their common stock are not immediately taxed on the consideration they receive. Taxes will have to be paid only if the stock is eventually sold. If cash is included in the transaction, this cash may be taxed to the extent that it represents a gain on the sale of stock.

In a type C reorganization, the acquiring corporation must purchase 80 percent of the fair market value of the target's assets. In this type of reorganization, a tax liability results when the acquiring corporation purchases the assets of the target using consideration other than stock in the acquiring corporation. The tax liability is measured by comparing the purchase price of the assets with the adjusted basis of these assets.


Hostile Acquisitions

The replacement of poor management is a potential source of gain from acquisition. Changing technological and competitive factors may lead to a need for corporate restructuring. If incumbent management is unable to adapt, then a hostile acquisition is one method for accomplishing change.

Hostile acquisitions generally involve poorly performing firms in mature industries, and occur when the board of directors of the target is opposed to the sale of the company. In this case, the acquiring firm has two options to precede with the acquisition a tender offer or a proxy fight. A tender offer represents an offer to buy the stock of the target firm directly from the firm's shareholders. in a proxy fight, the acquirer solicits the shareholders of the target firm in an attempt to obtain the right to vote their shares. The acquiring firm hopes to secure enough proxies to gain control of the board of directors and, in turn, replace the incumbent management.

Management in target firms will typically resist takeover attempts either to get a higher price for the firm or to protect their own self-interests.

Other defensive tactics include poison pills and dual class recapitalization. With poison pills, existing shareholders are issued rights which, if a bidder acquires a certain percentage of the outstanding shares, can be used to purchase additional shares at a bargain price, usually half the market price.

Do Acquisitions Benefit Shareholders?

There is substantial empirical evidence that the shareholders in acquired firms benefit substantially. Gains for this group typically amount to 20 percent in mergers and up 300 percent and above in tender offers above the market price.

The gains to acquiring firms are difficult to measure. The best evidence suggests that shareholders in bidding firms do gain. Losses in value subsequent to merger announcements are not unusual. This seems to suggest that overvaluation by bidding firms is common.

History

Do Acquisitions Benefit Shareholders?

Merger and acquisition activity in the United States has typically run in cycles, with peaks coinciding with periods of strong business growth US merger activity has been marked by five prominent waves:. One around the turn of the twentieth century, the second peaking in 1929, the third in the latter half of the 1960s, the fourth in the first half of the 1980s, and the fifth in the latter half of the 1990s.

This last peak, in the final years of the twentieth century, brought very high levels of merger activity. Bolstered by a strong stock market, businesses merged at an unprecedented rate. The total dollar volume of mergers increased throughout the 1990s, setting new records each year from 1994 to 1999. Many of the acquisitions involved huge companies and enormous dollar amounts. Disney acquired ABC Capital Cities for $ 19 billion, Bell Atlantic acquired Nynex for $ 22 billion, World com acquired MCI for $ 41.9 billion, SBC Communications acquired Ameritech for $ 56.6 billion , Traveler's acquired Citicorp for $ 72.6 billion, Nation Bank acquired Bank of America for $ 61.6 billion, Daimler-Benz acquired Chrysler for $ 39.5 billion, and Exxon acquired Mobil for $ 77.2 billion.

Merger Guidelines

Do Acquisitions Benefit Shareholders?

In the vast majority of antitrust challenges to mergers and acquisitions, the matters have been resolved by consent order or decree. The United States Regulators Commission have sought to clarify how they analyze mergers through merger guidelines issued May 5, 1992 (4 Trade Reg. Rep . [CCH] 13,104). These guidelines are law. nevertheless, the antitrust enforcement agencies will use them to analyze proposed transactions.

The 1992 merger guidelines state that most horizontal mergers and acquisitions aid competition and are beneficial to consumers. The intent of issuing the guidelines is to "avoid unnecessary interference with the larger universe of mergers that are either competitively beneficial or neutral."

The guidelines prescribe five questions for identifying hazards in proposed horizontal mergers:?? Does the merger cause a significant increase in concentration and produce a concentrated market Does the merger appear likely to cause adverse competitive effects Would entry sufficient to frustrate anti-competitive conduct be timely and likely to occur? Will the merger generate efficiencies that the parties could not reasonably achieve through other means? Is either party likely to fail, and will its assets leave the market if the merger does not occur?

The guidelines essentially ask which products or firms are now available to buyers and where could buyers turn for supplies if relative prices increased, which tends to yield lower concentration increases than Supreme Court merger decisions of the 1960s.

Rule 144: Selling Restricted Securities

When you acquire restricted securities or hold control securities, you must find an exemption from the US Regulator's registration requirements to sell them in the marketplace. Rule 144 allows public resale of restricted and control securities if a number of conditions are met. This overview tells you what you need to know about selling your restricted or control securities. It also describes how to have a restrictive legend removed.

What Are Restricted and Control Securities?

Restricted securities are securities acquired in unregistered, private sales from the issuer or from an affiliate of the issuer. Investors typically receive restricted securities through private placement offerings, as compensation for professional services, or in exchange for providing "seed money" or start-up capital to the company.

What Are Restricted and Control Securities?

Restricted securities are securities acquired in unregistered, private sales from the issuer or from an affiliate of the issuer. Investors typically receive restricted securities through private placement offerings, as compensation for professional services, or in exchange for providing "seed money" or start-up capital to the company.

What Are the Conditions of Rule 144?

If you want to sell your restricted or control securities to the public, you can follow the applicable conditions set forth in Rule 144. The rule is not the exclusive means for selling restricted or control securities, but provides a "safe harbor" exemption to sellers .

The rule's conditions are summarized below:

1. Holding of the Period. The Before you Sell the any Tel Restricted Securities in May at The Marketplace, you of MUST Them for the HOLD A Certain period of Time. Begins at The Relevant Holding period the when were bought at The Securities and Fully Paid for. Holding period at The only Applies to Tel Restricted Securities .

2. Adequate the Current Information. There of MUST BE Adequate Current Information at The Issuer of the About the before at The Securities Sale at The CAN BE Made. This means that GeneRally at The Issuer has complied the with at The periodic Reporting requirements Type.

3. To Ordinary Brokerage Transactions. All Sales All in All Respects the Handled of MUST BE AS Trading Transactions routine, and the receive Brokers May Not A Normal More Within last Commission.

Can the Securities Be Sold Publicly If the Conditions of Rule 144 Have Been Met?

Even if you have met the conditions of Rule 144, you are still unable to sell your restricted securities to the public until you have removed the legend from the certificate. Only a designated transfer agent can remove a restrictive legend from your shareholding.

Since removing the legend can be a complicated process, an investor buying or selling a restricted security should engage a transfer agent to facilitate the procedures for removing a legend.

At The International's Financial Securities Regulatory Commission IS ESTABLISHED to the Promote Investor confidence in at The Securities and Capital Markets by PROVIDING More Structure and Government Oversight. At The Mission of at The International's Financial Securities Regulatory Commission IS to Protect Investors and Maintain Integrity of at The Securities Industry , overseeing Major Participants in at The Industry, Including Stock Exchanges, Broker-Dealers, Investment Advisors, Mutual Funds, and public Utility Holding companies. at The International's Financial Securities Regulatory Commission IS Concerned the Primarily the with Promoting Disclosure of Important Information, enforcing Securities Hurtado De Notaris, and Protecting Investors WHO InterAct the with these various organizations and individuals.


Jack M. Fairchild jun 2 16, 04:46
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International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission: How to Explain

International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission How to Explain 2

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission has provisions under the Employment Act 2006 to protect whistle blowers. A guide from the Department of Trade and Industry, which specifically cites disclosures to the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission on the operation of license holders, by workers who are concerned about wrongdoing or failures, as disclosures that would be protected.

  1. Make a Complaint to the Licensed Business

If you have a complaint about the products or services provided by a license holder, you should first try to resolve the complaint directly with that licensed business. All license holders should do their best to make sure that your enquiries or complaints are dealt with promptly and efficiently. The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission expects license holders to acknowledge your complaint in a timely manner and investigate thoroughly within 12 weeks.

If you do not receive an acknowledgement within a reasonable time, you should contact the Chief Executive of the license holder. Complaining first to the license holder allows the business an opportunity to put things right.

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission requires license holder to have procedures in place for the proper handling of customer complaints. These procedures should tell you how to lodge a complaint with them and you are entitled to receive details of the procedures on request. The license holder’s complaints procedure should be exhausted before any further action is contemplated.

  1. When to make a complaint to the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

If you believe that your complaint has not been handled properly you may wish to seek the assistance of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission. We will do what we can to help, although as the financial services regulator, our role is to ensure that a license holder is being managed prudently in a fit and proper manner. Any interest which the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission takes in a complaint will therefore normally be confined to ensuring that the license holder has complied with our regulatory requirements under the relevant legislation.

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission does not have the power to arbitrate in a dispute between a complainant and license holder, or to recommend or enforce any compensation award. Those considering lodging complaints should always bear in mind these limitations, although an additional option may be to approach the Financial Services Ombudsman Scheme ("FSOS") see 3 below.

However, it is useful for the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission to be made aware of complaints against businesses it supervises. This is because a complaint might draw attention to general shortcomings in a license holder such as inadequacy of systems and lack of competence by its managers, directors or employees.

If you decide to make a complaint to the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission, you should put your complaint in writing, with full details of the nature of your complaint, your name, and how we may contact you. We do not deal with anonymous or oral complaints.

We will need your authority to release details of your complaint to the license holder concerned. Therefore, when writing to us you should include an authorization for us to discuss your complaint with the license holder.

  1. The role of the Financial Services Ombudsman Scheme

In view of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission limited role regarding complaints, in January 2002 the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission established the Financial Services Ombudsman Scheme, to independently review any eligible complaints made by private individuals that have not been resolved satisfactorily with the licensed business. In particular, if you have been disadvantaged financially, your complaint should be directed to the Financial Services Ombudsman Scheme. Further details on this can be obtained from the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission Office of Fair Trading.

The Ombudsman will consider a complaint where a financial service has been provided from the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission regardless of where the private individual is based in the world. However, the scheme only covers a specific range of financial services i.e. insurance, investments, banking, mortgages, credit, pension and other 

. It does not cover financial services provided by Corporate Service Providers or Trust Service Providers.

  1. How the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission will review your complaint

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission will issue an acknowledgement within five working days upon receipt of a written complaint. This acknowledgement will identify who will be handling the complaint and their contact details. If additional information is required, this will be requested.

The next step is to understand the nature of the complaint and identify whether or not a regulatory or supervisory issue is involved. We will review the complaint in order to ensure that the license holder has followed its own complaint procedures properly; and that the license holder has met the regulatory requirements set out in the Financial Services Act 2008 and the Financial Services Rule Book.

If a regulatory or supervisory issue is not involved then, regretfully, we will not be able to pursue the complaint with the license holder and the complainant will be directed to other available options.

If the supporting documentation provides evidence that a license holder may have fallen short of its regulatory obligations this may result in regulatory action being taken against the license holder. The Financial Services Act 2008 treats communications between International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission and its license holders as confidential. In view of this we will not be able to provide details of any regulatory action taken as a result of your complaint. We will however inform you when the complaint has been fully investigated and is considered closed. We will aim to conclude investigation of a complaint within a maximum of 12 weeks. However, if we are unable to do so, we will send you regular written updates.

All complaints received by the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission are formally recorded and a complaints report is considered by the Board of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission on a regular basis.

  1. Taking your complaint further

If appropriate, ultimately a complainant can resort to legal action, however this can be costly and time consuming especially for private individuals.

If you have already taken legal advice or commenced legal proceedings in respect of financial losses which you believe you have incurred do not stop progressing with this action because you have made a complaint to the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission. As explained above, the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission cannot act as an arbitrator or make financial awards to a customer.

Complaints about International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

Introduction

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission is committed to acting professionally and fairly at all times.

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission views complaints as an opportunity to examine potential weaknesses and to explore ways in which performance might be improved, or the role of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission better understood. Our complaints procedure has been designed to ensure that any complaints about our actions or omissions are handled fairly and consistently.

How to make a complaint

If you have been directly affected by our actions, or if you have a direct involvement or interest in the subject of the complaint, you may complain to us. A guide to our procedures for handling complaints is shown below.

If you wish to make a formal complaint, it must be made in writing, addressed to the Chief Executive and you must specify that it is a formal complaint.

If you make an oral complaint which cannot be resolved on the spot, we will ask you to confirm your complaint in writing if you wish it to be investigated further.

Who do I complain to?

If your complaint is about the actions or omissions of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission Board you should write to:

The Chief Executive

The International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission

E-mail: contact@ifsrc.com

How will my complaint be handled?

Your complaint will be investigated by a senior member of staff, who is independent of the matter being complained about.

Complaints are acknowledged within five business days and are resolved as quickly as possible. We endeavor to complete our investigation of your complaint within four weeks. However, if this is not possible, we will write to you within four weeks to advise on the progress of our review and when we expect to complete the investigation.

On completion of our investigation, we will send you a report. Our report will advise if your complaint has been upheld and if so what steps will be taken to remedy the situation. If your complaint has been rejected, we will advise why. Prior to sending our report, the investigating manager will discuss your complaint with another independent manager, to assess whether your complaint has been investigated thoroughly and you have been treated fairly. All complaints are treated in confidence as far as possible.

What if I feel that my complaint has not been properly addressed?

If you feel that your complaint has not been properly addressed, or has not been handled properly, you may write to the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission to seek a Review. Your request for a Review must be submitted within four weeks of the date of our report to you following our investigation.

Complaints that are covered by the scheme:

The complainant must have a direct involvement or interest in the subject of the complaint. The complaint should not concern a formal decision which has an independent appeal mechanism or where the appeal mechanism has not been exhausted.

The complaint must be made within twelve months of the date on which the complainant became aware of the event which is the subject of the complaint, unless the complainant can demonstrate good reason for a delay in making the complaint.

* A complaint may be that the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission has failed to make a decision.

* A complaint may be about a significant mistake, lack of care, unreasonable delay, or lack of proportionality.

* A complaint may be about the failure of administrative arrangements or an over-restrictive or narrow interpretation of such arrangements.

* A complaint may be about the application of unfair or inappropriate remedies.

* A complaint may concern breach of confidentiality.

* A complaint may be about damage to property.

* A complaint may be about the attitude or behavior of a member of staff.

Complaints which fall outside these guidelines will only be investigated at the discretion of the Chief Executive

Recording of complaints

All complaints received by the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission are recorded for internal monitoring purposes, with a summary of the outcome. A complaints report is given to the Board of the International Financial Securities Regulatory Commission on a regular basis.


Jack M. Fairchild jun 9 16, 05:02
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What Should I Invest In?

What Should I Invest In?

As you may have noticed, there are several categories of investments, and many of those categories have thousands of choices within them. So finding the right ones for you isn't a trivial matter.

The single greatest factor, by far, in growing your long-term wealth is the rate of return you get on your investment. There are times, though, when you may need to park your money someplace for a short time, even though you won't get very good returns. Here is a summary of the most common short-term savings vehicles:

Short-term savings vehicles

  • Savings account: Often the first banking product people use, savings accounts earn a small amount in interest, so they're a little better than that dusty piggy bank on the dresser.
  • Money market funds: These are a specialized type of mutual fund that invests in extremely short-term bonds. Unlike most mutual funds, shares in a money market fund are designed to be worth $1 at all times. Money market funds usually pay better interest rates than a conventional savings account does, but you'll earn less than what you could get in certificates of deposit.
  • Certificate of deposit (CD): This is a specialized deposit you make at a bank or other financial institution. The interest rate on CDs is usually about the same as that of short- or intermediate-term bonds, depending on the duration of the CD. Interest is paid at regular intervals until the CD matures, at which point you get the money you originally deposited plus the accumulated interest payments. CDs through banks are usually insured up to $100,000.

Fools are partial to investing in stocks, as opposed to other long-term investing vehicles, because stocks have historically offered the highest return on our money. Here are the most common long-term investing vehicles:

Long-term investing vehicles

  • Bonds: Bonds come in various forms. They're known as "fixed-income" securities because the amount of income the bond generates each year is "fixed," or set, when the bond is sold. From an investor's point of view, bonds are similar to CDs, except that the government or corporations issue them, instead of banks.
  • Stocks: Stocks are a way for individuals to own parts of businesses. A share of stock represents a proportional share of ownership in a company. As the value of the company changes, the value of the share in that company rises and falls.
  • Mutual funds: Mutual funds are a way for investors to pool their money to buy stocks, bonds, or anything else the fund manager decides is worthwhile. Instead of managing your money yourself, you turn over the responsibility of managing that money to a professional. Unfortunately, the vast majority of such "professionals" tend to underperform the market indexes.

Retirement plans

A number of special plans are designed to create retirement savings, and many of these plans allow you to deposit money directly from your paycheck before taxes are taken out. Employers occasionally will match the amount (or a percentage of that amount) you have withheld from your paycheck up to a certain percentage of your salary. Some of these plans let you withdraw money early without a penalty if you want to buy a home or pay for education. If early withdrawals are not permitted, you may be able to borrow money from the account, or take out low-interest secured loans with your retirement savings as collateral. Rates of return vary on these plans, depending on what you invest in, since you can invest in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, CDs, or any combination.

  • Individual retirement account (IRA): This is one of a group of plans that allow you to put some of your income into a tax-deferred retirement fund -- you won't pay taxes until you withdraw your funds. Withdrawals are taxed at regular income-tax rates, not at the lower capital-gains rates. All IRAs are specialized accounts (not investments) that allow the account holder to invest the money however he or she likes. If you qualify, some or all of your IRA contribution may be tax-deductible.
  • Roth IRA: This retirement account differs from the conventional IRA in that it provides no tax deduction up front on contributions. Instead, it offers total exemption from federal taxes when you cash out to pay for retirement or a first home. A Roth can also be used for certain other expenses, such as education or unreimbursed medical expenses, without incurring a penalty -- although any earnings that are withdrawn are subject to income taxes unless you are more than 59 ½ years old. Not all taxpayers are eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA. You may be able to qualify if you participate in corporate retirement plans and don't qualify for deductible contributions to the conventional IRA.
  • 401(k): A retirement savings vehicle that employers offer. It's named for the section of the Internal Revenue Code where it's covered. Given the tax advantages and the possibility of corporate matching -- those cases when your employer matches part of your contribution -- the 401(k) is well worth considering.
  • 403(b): The nonprofit version of a 401(k) plan. Local and state governments offer a 457 plan.
  • Keogh: A special type of IRA that doubles as a pension plan for a self-employed person, who can put aside significantly more than the contributions allowed for an IRA.
  • Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) plan: A special kind of Keogh-individual retirement account. SEPs were created so that small businesses could set up retirement plans that were a little easier to administer than normal pension plans are. Both employees and the employer can contribute to a SEP.

Investing in stocks

It's worth taking a closer look at stocks, because historically, they've had much better returns than bonds and other investments. Essentially, stock lets you own a part of a business. Dating back to the Dutch mutual stock corporations of the 16th century, the modern stock market exists as a way for entrepreneurs to finance businesses using money collected from investors. In return for ponying up the dough to finance the company, the investor becomes a part-owner of the company. That ownership is represented by stock -- specialized financial "securities," or financial instruments -- that are "secured" by a claim on the assets and profits of a company.

Common stock

Common stock is aptly named -- it's the most common form of stock an investor will encounter. This is an ideal investment vehicle for individuals, because anyone can take part; there are absolutely no restrictions on who can purchase common stock -- the young, the old, the savvy, the reckless. Common stock is more than just a piece of paper; it represents a proportional share of ownership in a company -- a stake in a real, living, breathing business. By owning stock -- the most amazing wealth-creation vehicle ever conceived (except for inheriting money from a relative you've never heard of) -- you are a part-owner of a business.

Shareholders "own" a part of the assets of the company and part of the stream of cash those assets generate. As the company acquires more assets and the stream of cash it generates gets larger, the value of the business increases. This increase in the value of the business is what drives up the value of the stock in that business.

Because they own a part of the business, shareholders get a vote to elect the board of directors. The board is a group of individuals who oversee major decisions the company makes. They tend to wield a lot of power in corporate America. Boards decide whether a company will invest in itself, buy other companies, pay a dividend, or repurchase stock. Top company management will give some advice, but the board makes the final decision. The board even has the power to hire and fire those managers.

As with most things in life, the potential reward from owning stock in a growing business has some possible pitfalls. Shareholders also get a full share of the risk inherent in operating the business. If things go bad, their shares of stock may decrease in value. They could even end up being worthless if the company goes bankrupt.

Different classes of stock

Occasionally, companies find it necessary to concentrate the voting power of a company into a specific class of stock, in which certain set of people own the majority of shares. For instance, if a family business needs to raise money by selling equity, sometimes they will create a second class of stock that they control and has, say, 10 votes per share of stock, while they sell another class of stock that only has one vote per share to others.

Does this sound like a bad deal? Many investors believe it is, and they routinely avoid companies with multiple classes of voting stock. This kind of structure is most common in media companies and has been around only since 1987.

When there is more than one class of stock, they are often designated as Class A or Class B shares.

Next steps

We hope this hasn't been the most painful thing you've had to read this week. You're now conversant enough in stock market matters to impress those who are very easily impressed. Although knowing the terms and general workings of the stock market is just the first step in your investing career, it's useful to know that each share of stock represents a proportional share of a business, and that the potential rewards are great, but that stocks are also riskier than putting money in the bank.


Jack M. Fairchild sep 8 16, 13:44
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